There is a huge literature on the many aspects of ivory research. It is intended here to bring together those which members of the research cluster have found particularly important and useful in their work. Entries for the annotated bibliography are provided by members of the research network. If you wish to contribute to this bibliography, please contact Sonia O’Connor.

Care and conservation

Canadian Conservation Institute,1988. Care of Ivory, Bone, Horn and Antler, CCI Notes 6/1, March , Ottawa: Canadian Conservation Institute.
[recommends environmental conditions for ivory of <25oC 45-55% RH, preferably steady values, light <150 lux and UV <75 microW / lm, also includes some details on identification with reference to Penniman]

Majewski, L., 1973. On conservation: cleaning and care of ivory and bone objects, Museum News (American Association of Museums). 51(7):10-11,
[recommends environmental conditions for ivory of 65-70 oF and 45-60% RH]

Lafontaine, R. H. and Wood, P. A., 1982. The Stabilization of Ivory Against
Relative Humidity Fluctuations, Studies in Conservation 27, 109-117. [weight changes at 4 RH values for walrus ivory - both primary and secondary dentine, dimensional changes in walrus ivory (again both primary and secondary dentine) at 4 RH levels with the ivory prepared in all 3 dimensions, dimensional change (same materials as RH) using 3 temperatures, effect of barrier coatings on moisture absorption - doesn't make any environmental recommendations]

Driggers, J. M., Mussey R. D., and Garvin S.M, 1991. Treatment of an ivory-inlaid Anglo-Indian desk bookcase, WAG Postprints, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

V&A Conservation Department ,1971. The Care of Ivory, Technical Notes on the Care of Art Objects number 6, Victoria and Albert Museum.
[constant 55% RH and 18 oC]

Identification and Properties

Baer, N.S., Indictor, N., Frantz, J.H., and Appelbaum, B.,1971. The effect of high temperature on ivory, Studies in Conservation 16, 1-8

Campbell Pedersen M., 2004. Gem and Ornamental Materials of Organic Origin, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
[This covers a very wide range of materials including shell, coral, pearl, jet, amber etc., and all the major sources of osseous and keratinous raw materials and their imitations. Wonderful photographs, very descriptive text, but often lacking structural biological or chemical information. Some of the suggested identification tests are potentially rather destructive! A very useful book for those dealing with historic or contemporary material.]

Espinoza E. O. and Mann M., 1992. Identification guide for ivory and ivory substitutes, World Wildlife Fund and Conservation Foundation, Baltimore.
[A useful introduction but the illustrations are mostly unworked material or polished sections. It tackles the differences between elephant and mammoth ivory. Reprinted in 1999, as a pdf if now available .

Hornbeck, S., 2010. Ivory: Identification and regulation of a precious material, National Museum of Aftrican Art Conservation Laboratory, Smithsonian,
[This paper was intended to accompany an exhibit of ivory masterworks and in the training US Customs and Immigration officials. It was published on the web in January 2010.]

Krzyszkowska. O., 1990. Ivory and related materials. An illustrated Guide, Classical Handbook 3, Bulletin Supplement 59, Institute of Classical Studies, London.
[Especially good for the characteristics of worked and degraded surfaces of archaeological finds. Lacking a bit in the descriptions of the micro and macro structure of materials and the quality of the reproduction of the photos lets it down a bit.]

Locke M., 2008. Structure of Ivory, Journal of Morphology 269: 423–450
[Very detailed account of the structure of ivories. Illustrated with surfaces in a range of conditions using microscopy with

MacGregor, A., 1985. Bone, antler , ivory and horn: the technology of skeletal materials since the Roman period, Croom Helm, London.
[A good survey of object types and working techniques for a range of materials including ivories, with a brief section on identification.] 

O'Connor, S.,1987. The identification of osseous and keratin materials at York. In Starling, K. and Watkinson, D. (Eds), Archaeological bone, antler and ivory. Occasional papers no.5, United Kingdom Institute for Conservation, 9-21.
[Enhanced preservation of osseous and keratinous material in waterlogged archaeological sites in York, including bone, ivory, antler, whalebone, hoof, horn, tortoiseshell, baleen. Discusses general principles and methods of identification of these materials and the working of baleen and tortoiseshell.]

O'Connor, T.P., 1987. On the structure, chemistry and decay of bone, antler and ivory. In Starling, K. and Watkinson, D. (Eds), Archaeological bone, antler and ivory. Occasional papers no.5, United Kingdom Institute for Conservation, 6-8.
[It does what it says on the tin - summarizes the composition, structure, and properties of calcified skeletal tissues, the differences between them and their decay in burial environments.] pdf  

Penniman, T. K., 1952. Pictures of ivory and other animal teeth, bone and antler, Occasional papers on technology 5, Pit Rivers Museum, University of Oxford.
[Good pictures, clear text, invaluable and still in print! Mostly deals with thin sections rather than surfaces of object.]

Thornton J, 1981. The structure of ivory and ivory substitutes, in Preprints of 9th Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic Works, Philadelphia, May 27-3, pp 173-181.
[Gets to grips with ivories. Very good descriptions but a lot of the finer detail relates to thin sections and , sadly, there are no pictures!!]

Ivory Histories

Conrad N.J., 2003. Palaeolithic ivory sculptures from southwestern Germany and the origins of figurative art, Nature, 426  18/25 December 2003 830-832
[reporting discovery of 30,000 year old figurines carved from mammoth ivory, from Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany, including the oldest known representation of a bird, a therianthropic sculpture and an animal that most closely resembles a horse.] 

Rijkelijkhuizen, M., 2009. Whales, Walruses, and Elephants: Artisans in Ivory, Baleen, and Other Skeletal Materials in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Amsterdam, International Journal of Historical Archaeology 13, No 4, 409-429
[Evidence from both historical and archaeological sources are brought together to show the significance of the ivory trade in 17th and 18th century Amsterdam.  Large numbers of objects are being manufactured in elephant ivory but walrus ivory, walrus penis bone, whale bone and baleen were also being utilised. Considers finished objects and working waste] for free pdf. 

Tripati, s. and Godfrey, I., 2007. Studies on elephant tusks and hippopotamus teeth collected from the early 17th century Portuguese shipwreck off Goa, west coast of India: Evidence of maritime trade between Goa, Portugal and African countries, Current Science, 92, No. 3, 332-339
[Describes trade routes, the wreck site and condition of the ivory cargo. Dated to between 740 and 560 BP by carbon 14 dating, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis was imployed in the hope of providing information about the inorganic and organic components.  The results throw some light on the diagenesis of the ivory but not on its provenance.]