Ivory identification

Publications on ivory identification are listed in the annotated bibliography

 

Web resources

 

General

Identification guide for ivory and ivory substitutes, World Wildlife Fund and Conservation Foundation. http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/pub/e-ivory-guide.pdf

Ivory: Identification and regulation of a precious material, by Hornbeck, S., 2010, National Museum of Aftrican Art Conservation Laboratory, Smithsonian, http://africa.si.edu/research/ivory.pdf

Society for historical Archaeology. ID and conservation needs of bone, antler and ivory objects http://www.sha.org/research_resources/conservation_faqs/treatment.cfm#E

 

Elephant: extant and extinct

Distinguishing African and Indian elephant ivory is very problematic - this website may provide some new insites! http://www.brunching.com/elephants.html

 

Ivory substitutes

The Key Centre for Polymer Colloids, University of Sydney, Module 9.5.1. Replacing natural products ivory and bakerlite
http://discovery.kcpc.usyd.edu.au//9.5.1/9.5.1_ivory.html

Development from ivory to composition billiard balls (Celluloid, Bonzoline, Crystalate and Vitalite) from The English Amateur Billiards Association web site, A Brief History of Billiards and the Tools of the Trade, by Peter Ainsworth.
 http://www.eaba.co.uk/articles/billiardsHistory/chapter1.html