Ivory identification

Publications on ivory identification are listed in the annotated bibliography


Web resources



Identification guide for ivory and ivory substitutes, World Wildlife Fund and Conservation Foundation. http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/pub/e-ivory-guide.pdf

Ivory: Identification and regulation of a precious material, by Hornbeck, S., 2010, National Museum of Aftrican Art Conservation Laboratory, Smithsonian, http://africa.si.edu/research/ivory.pdf

Society for historical Archaeology. ID and conservation needs of bone, antler and ivory objects http://www.sha.org/research_resources/conservation_faqs/treatment.cfm#E


Elephant: extant and extinct

Distinguishing African and Indian elephant ivory is very problematic - this website may provide some new insites! http://www.brunching.com/elephants.html


Ivory substitutes

The Key Centre for Polymer Colloids, University of Sydney, Module 9.5.1. Replacing natural products ivory and bakerlite

Development from ivory to composition billiard balls (Celluloid, Bonzoline, Crystalate and Vitalite) from The English Amateur Billiards Association web site, A Brief History of Billiards and the Tools of the Trade, by Peter Ainsworth.